Tuesday, March 13, 2018

Lost Porter County: Lansing

Lansing was one of the first communities to appear in Porter County. Its existence was fleeting and little has been written about the place and its people. Despite its ephemeral nature, research has uncovered several interesting historical facts that go beyond coincidence that can be connected to this small hamlet.

The first resident of the area that would later encompass Lansing was Joseph Detweiler Shoemaker. Shoemaker, born January 12, 1807, in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, married Catherine Johnson in Pennsylvania when 24 years of age. Joseph and Catherine soon moved to Holmes County, Ohio, where they would live six years prior to migrating to Porter County's Jackson Township in 1838.

Joseph's obituary, published in the January 30, 1896, issue of the Hawarden Independent of Hawarden, Sioux County, Iowa, states that when Joseph arrived in Jackson Township that "The section was a dense forest at that time and in fact almost a perfect wilderness, but a farm was cleared and he resided there 27 years."

Soon after his arrival, Shoemaker is believed have sold a nine or ten acre portion of his land to Elijah Casteel and and William Briscoe Calhoun, Senior. Coffee Creek traversed through this small parcel. Casteel and Calhoun dammed the creek, constructed a mill race, and erected a sawmill, likely between 1838 and 1840, and the new facility was referred to as Casteel Mill.

Shoemaker and his family migrated to Iowa in the spring of 1865, arriving in Marshall County, Iowa, on July 1. His wife died shortly after their arrival, on September 23, 1865, and seven months later he married Mrs. Mary Ford on April 5, 1866. Shoemaker died on January 24, 1896, in Sioux County, Iowa, at the age of 89.

It is believed that Elijah Casteel and William Calhoun, proprietors of the sawmill, were related. Elijah was married by Justice of the Peace David Vestal in Randolph County, Indiana, on January 6, 1827, to Anna Calhoon (Calhoun). By 1833 Elijah was operating a grocery in Michigan City, LaPorte County, Indiana.

Marriage registration of Elijah Casteel to Anna Calhoon.
Source: Randolph County, Indiana, Marriage Records, p. 64.

In 1835, Casteel won election as commissioner of one of Porter County's original three township's, Waverly Township - this was one year prior to Porter County's separation from LaPorte County. He would soon after be elected Jackson Township's first justice of the peace.

Casteel was granted federal land patents for two 80-acre parcels in Section 20 of Jackson Township on March 30, 1837, a short distance west of Casteel Mill (W½ of the northwest quarter and the W½ of the northeast quarter).

William Calhoun and Elijah Casteel did not remain long in Jackson Township; they sold their interests in the sawmill in 1840 and migrated to Missouri. Calhoun led an interesting, successful life that ended tragically. He was born November 29, 1812, in Ohio. His father was killed serving in the War of 1812, leaving him an orphan. As was common among orphaned children at the time, he was bound out in the employ of others to learn a trade. He ran away from his master at the age of 14 and resided in Ohio, later moving to Porter County.

Soon after arriving in Missouri, William married Melvina Warren on April 24, 1840, in Howard County. The couple then moved to Linn County, Missouri, where they lived near the Sullivan County boundary line. William and Melvina had eight children, five daughters and three sons.

Though he began his life in Linn County with little money and few possessions, William eventually amassed more than 3,600 acres of land and become a man of considerable influence. In their 1888 history of Sullivan County, Missouri, The Goodspeed Publishing Company includes the following concerning Calhoun's demise: 
Among the foulest deeds which blacken the war history of this community was the murder of William Calhoon (Sic). While away on business, he chanced be in Scottsville [Sullivan County] late in the evening of August 27, 1864. While there, he and several other citizens were captured by a posse of men, ostensibly for the purpose of hunting guerillas. They, then, started for Mr. Calhoon's home, and upon arriving at the same, Mr. Calhoon entered the house, closely guarded, to get water for the men and himself. His wife asked him where he was going, and he replied they were going to hunt guerillas, which was the last remark that fell from his lips. They then mounted their horses, some stopping at a melon patch. Mr. Calhoon and John Hatcher, however, rode on. Two men accompanying them came back and soon two shots were heard. When Mr. Calhoon's body was found, it was pierced with two shots, either of which would have proved fatal. His pockets were rifled, and his papers were scattered. Mr. Calhoon was a wealthy man, and it was known that he had sold some cattle but a few days previous to the murder, which facts led to the belief he was killed for his money. Circumstantial evidence pointed to James Head as the leading murderer, and at times Mr. Head almost acknowledged his guilt. He was arrested, but bailed out by his friends, and died from the effects of an accident before being brought to trial. During his illness parties who were suspected of being accomplices never left his bedside; it is thought this course was taken for fear that Mr. Head would admit his and others' guilt.
Much less is known about the life of Elijah Casteel. He can found in the 1860 Federal Census of West Locust, Sullivan County, Missouri, residing with his wife Anna. The census lists his occupation as "Farmer & Merchant." The combined value of his real estate and personal estate is noted as $7,184, suggesting that he had accumulated more than a modest level of wealth by the age of 58.

Remarkably, on September 10, 1857, a survey plat was recorded in Sullivan County, Missouri, for the town of Valparaiso, with Elijah Casteel listed as proprietor. Coincidentally, Valparaiso was located in Sullivan County's Jackson Township. The Goodspeed Publishing Company's 1888 history of Sullivan County states the following:
Valparaiso was surveyed September 10, 1857, for Elijah Casteel, proprietor. The southwest corner of Block 5 of this town is 8 chains and 27 links [546 feet] east and 18 links [12 feet] north of the quarter section corner of the west line of Section 18, Township 64, Range 19; an addition to the town was made April 1, 1859. This town flourished to some extent for a few years, but after the completion of the present Council Bluffs & Kansas City Railway, and the building up of Pollock, Pollock took its place.
Elijah Casteel and local residents apparently petitioned for the establishment of a post office at the newly founded community of Valparaiso. Casteel was appointed Valparaiso's first postmaster on October 5, 1858, serving in that capacity through July 10, 1865, when he was replaced by Ezekiel W. Banner. A Valparaiso post office would remain in Missouri until October 7, 1879, when it was renamed Pollock.

Given this information and Elijah Casteel's involvement in the founding of Porter County, one is left to wonder if Casteel was instrumental in the naming of Valparaiso in Porter County? Various genealogies suggest that Elijah died prior to 1870 since he cannot be located in the that year's Federal Census.

Portions of Townships 64N 19W and 64N 20W in Sullivan County,
Missouri, showing approximate location of Casteel's Valparaiso [Pollock].

Source: Edwards Brothers' An Illustrated
Historical Atlas of Sullivan County, Missouri
, 1877.

News item concerning Valparaiso, Sullivan County, Missouri.
Source: Lexington Weekly Intelligencer, July 29, 1876.

United States Post Office Department records of Sullivan
County, Missouri, postmaster appointments highlighting Valparaiso.
Source: National Archives and Records Administration, Microfilm Roll M841.

Using the Public Land Survey System, Casteel Mill can be described as having been situated in the northwest quarter of the northwest quarter of the southwest quarter of Section 21 in Jackson Township, along present day Mander Road. A distillery was constructed near the mill by Abner Enoch. The distillery's boiler, however, burst in 1849 and the production of alcohol was abandoned.

By the end of 1840, Eli Bingham Lansing and his brother-in-law, Hiram Dille, owned the Casteel Mill. It is known that the sawmill was still in operation during the winter of 1851-52, when John B. Johnson was employed at the sawmill and being paid $1.25 per thousand board feet of production.

On July 16, 1842, Eli B. Lansing was issued a United States patent (Patent No. 2,726). It has been written that Lansing rode his saddle horse, named Bulcher, to Washington, D.C. to submit his patent application for his overshot waterwheel design. Lansing' patent claimed the his invention improved upon existing technology through "the construction of the buckets (radial) marked D, with inclined plane ends, D' D', diverging in contrary directions, in combination with the spiral or scroll-case E, for condensing the water and causing it to act by percussion and reaction." This waterwheel design was referred to as the Lansing Principle. Lansing's overshot waterwheel technology was reportedly universally used until is was superseded by the turbine.

Diagram from United States Patent No. 2,726
issued to Eli B. Lansing on July 16, 1842.

Source: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, D.C.

Oddly, the patent indicates that Lansing was residing at Wheeling, Delaware County, Indiana, at the time the patent was granted. A possible explanation is that Eli was installing the technology in that region of the state in 1842 and his postal address was located at Wheeling.

A number of families would soon settle close to the mill and the community that developed near it was referred to as Lansing in honor of Eli Lansing. By 1850, the surrounding community supported a miller, wagon maker, gunsmith, joiner, cabinet maker, two blacksmiths, three coopers, three cobblers, and four carpenters. The population became of sufficient size that a petition for the establishment of a community post office was approved; the post office services began at Lansing on September 19, 1851, and discontinued on May 14, 1857. Elijah H. Johnson served as Lansing’s first and only postmaster.

United States Post Office Department records of Porter
County, Indiana, postmaster appointments highlighting Lansing.
Source: National Archives and Records Administration, Microfilm Roll M841.

Relatively little is known about Lansing's postmaster, Elijah H. Johnson. An obituary for one of his children indicates that Elijah moved to Porter County in 1847. He appears in the 1850 Federal Census of Jackson Township as being 41 years of age, born in New York, and occupied as a carpenter. His wife, Clorinda, also born in New York, is listed as being 38 years old. They had apparently lived in Michigan for several years since four of their five children were born there; these four children were Andrew Jackson (14), Lovina (11), Phebe L. (9), and George M. (6). Their youngest child, Melissa A. (2), was born in Indiana.

At some point in time after 1852, the sawmill along Coffee Creek was converted by Eli Lansing into a grist mill. It is speculated that the conversion from sawmilling to grist milling was due to the rapid clearing of land and planting of crops in Jackson Township and adjacent northern Washington Township. The grist mill was called Forest Mill in reference to the significant amount of timberland still encircling the mill site.

Forest Mill as it appears on an 1876 plat map
of Jackson Township, Porter County, Indiana.
Source: Hardesty's Illustrated Historical Atlas
of Porter County, Indiana
. [see p. 77]

Eli Bingham Lansing was born on March 29,1807, in Vermont. At Morgan County, Ohio, on February 8, 1821, he married Lovina Dille, the daughter of John Dille and Nancy (Gallaher) Dille. Lovina was born on May 29, 1808, in Tuscarawas County, Ohio, and passed away in Indiana in 1862.

To the union of Eli and Lovina Lansing were born the following children:
  • Aratus Lansing, born November 29, 1828, in Tuscarawas County, Ohio; married Maria I. Johnson on January 28, 1849, in Porter County, Indiana; died January 17, 1910, in Des Moines, Polk County, Ohio
  • Nancy (Lansing) Williams, born September 6, 1830, in Tuscarawas County, Ohio; married Milliken Caleb Williams on July 9, 1848, in Porter County, Indiana; died March 1, 1910, in Westville, LaPorte County, Indiana
  • Charlotte K. (Lansing) Faulkner, born January 14, 1835, in Indiana
  • Robert Lansing, born November 4, 1838, in Indiana, died February 10, 1903, in Whiting, Lake County, Indiana
  • Rachel Dille Lansing, born March 8, 1841, in Indiana
  • Martha Lansing, born January 2, 1843, in Indiana; died prior to 1850
  • Lovina "Vina" (Lansing) Faulkner, born June 4, 1848, in Indiana; married Clarence Faulkner; died October 6, 1867 at Pentwater, Oceana County Michigan
  • Hortense (Lansing) Kenney, born June 19, 1850, in Jackson Township, Porter County, Indiana; married Charles L. Kenney; died July 30, 1910, in Inland Township, Benzie County, Michigan
  • Horatio Lansing, born June 1851 in Jackson Township, Porter County, Indiana

1860 census enumeration of Eli B. Lansing and family.
Source: 1860 Federal Census of Jackson Township, Porter County, Indiana.

On January 30, 1866, in Porter County, and about four years after the death of his wife Lovina, Eli, now 58 years old, would marry Rachael S. Dunn, age 25 years. Rachael was born in Pennsylvania in 1841. The following two children resulted from Eli's second marriage:

  • Arizona Lansing, born May 26, 1867, in Indiana; married Justice Ellis Garrison; died August 14, 1946, at Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, California
  • Myndred "Mindrix" Lansing, born August 1869 in Michigan; died in California
By June 1870, Eli B. Lansing had moved with Rachael and his two youngest children to Inland Township, Benzie County, Michigan, where, at the age of 62, he was occupied in farming.

The last known living grandchild of Eli B. Lansing was Rachel Susan (Garrison) Phelan, Arizona's daughter, who passed away on November 26, 2004, at Pasadena, Los Angeles County, California. Thus, an astounding 197 years spanned the birth of Eli and the death of his granddaughter, Rachel! 
Forest Mill would later be renamed Smith Mill when George Byron Smith and a man named Becker purchased the property. Prior to moving to Jackson Township, Smith, his wife, Caroline (Baird) Smith, and children had lived in Porter County's Union Township where George was occupied as a farmer. Smith and his two sons, Myron B. Smith and Dorman A. Smith, would operate the mill through the 1870s and as late as 1888 the Smith Mill was still producing flour that was sold in the surrounding communities.

Myron B. Smith would later establish M. Smith & Son, a dry goods business in Chesterton located at the southwest corner of the present day intersection of Calumet Road and Broadway Avenue. The Smith Building, which housed their business, still stands. Their retail business also sold clothing, chinaware, groceries, rugs, sewing machines, and pianos.

Postcard image of M. Smith & Son in Chesterton, circa 1907.
Source: Collection of Steven R. Shook.

When the grist mill at Lansing discontinued operations in uncertain, but it is believed that production ceased during the 1890s. A more modernized mill, the Long-Tratebas Mill, was located less than three-quarters of a mile downstream on Coffee Creek and likely placed considerable competitive pressure on the operators of the Smith Mill. By 1906, the mill pound associated with the mill at Lansing no longer appears on Jackson Township plat maps, suggesting the mill's commercial collapse.

It is also unknown when the name of Lansing faded from the collective memory of the citizens of Porter County. Both Jackson Center, situated a mile to the east, and Sumanville (Suman), one mile to the southeast, would challenge Lansing's place as the hub of Jackson Township's commercial activities. Both nearby communities would become of adequate size to warrant the establishment of post offices (Jackson Center, 1862-1884; Sumanville, 1876-1904).

Source Material

Adams, Orvyl Guy. 1928. Place Names in the North Central Counties of Missouri. M.S. Thesis. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri. 406 p.

Baker, J. David. 1976. The Postal History of Indiana, Volume II. Louisville, Kentucky: Leonard H. Hartmann. 1,061 p. [see p. 966]

Ball, Timothy H. 1900. Northwestern Indiana from 1800 to 1900 or A View of Our Region Through the Nineteenth Century. Chicago, Illinois: Donohue and Henneberry. 570 p. [see p. 101]

Campbell, R. A. 1875. Campbell's Gazetteer of Missouri. St. Louis, Missouri: R. A. Campbell. 801 p. [see p. 616]

The Chesterton Centennial, Inc. 1952. Chesterton Centennial 1852-1952. Chesterton, Indiana: The Chesterton Centennial, Inc. 104 p. [see p. 22]

Edwards Brothers. 1877. An Illustrated Historical Atlas of Sullivan County, Missouri. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Edwards Brothers. 56 p. [see pp. 19, 39]

Ellsberry, Elizabeth Prather. 1958. The Warrens and You. Kansas City, Missouri: Brown-White-Lowell Press. 294 p. [see pp. 183-184]

Fisher, William Hubbell. 1873. Reports of Cases Relating to Letters Patent for Inventions Determined in the Supreme and Circuit Courts of the United States. Volume I. Cincinnati, Ohio: Robert Clarke & Company. 728 p. [see pp. 319-339]

George A. Ogle & Company. 1906. Standard Atlas of Porter County, Indiana: Including a Plat Book of the Villages, Cities and Townships of the County. Chicago, Illinois: George A. Ogle & Company. 55 p. [see p. 17]

Goodspeed, Weston A., and Charles Blanchard. 1882. Counties of Porter and Lake, Indiana: Historical and Biographical, Illustrated. Chicago, Illinois: F. A. Battey & Company. 771 p. [see pp. 202, 303]

The Goodspeed Publishing Company. 1888. History of Adair, Sullivan, Putnam, and Schuyler Counties, Missouri. Chicago, Illinois: The Goodspeed Publishing Company. 1,225 p. [see pp. 184, 778-779]

Hardesty, A. G. 1876. Illustrated Historical Atlas of Porter County, Indiana. Valparaiso, Indiana: A. G. Hardesty. 90 p. [see pp. 25, 77]

Northwest Indiana Genealogical Society. 1997. Jackson Township Cemeteries, Porter County, IN. Valparaiso, Indiana: Northwest Indiana Genealogical Society.

Packard, Jasper. 1876. History of La Porte County, Indiana, and Its Townships, Towns and Cities. LaPorte, Indiana: S. E. Taylor & Company. 467 p. [see p. 40]

Newspapers (listed by date of publication)
Practical Observer, Valparaiso, Porter County, Indiana; April 26, 1856; Volume 4, Number 18, Page 2, Column 3.

Practical Observer, Valparaiso, Porter County, Indiana; August 26, 1856; Volume 4, Number 35, Page 4, Column 4.

Lexington Weekly Intelligencer, Lexington, Lafayette County, Missouri; July 29, 1876; Volume 6, Number 17, Page 3, Column 1. Column titled "Shorts."

The Tribune, Chesterton, Porter County, Indiana; January 23, 1890; Volume 6, Number 41, Page 1, Columns 1-2. Column titled "Two More Victims."

The Chesterton Tribune, Chesterton, Porter County, Indiana; September 21, 1894; Volume 11, Number 24, Page 8, Column 3.

Hawarden Independent, Hawarden, Sioux County, Iowa; January 30, 1896; Volume 18, Number 38, Page 1, Columns 3-4. Column titled "Mr. Shoemaker's Death."

The Porter County Vidette, Valparaiso, Porter County, Indiana; August 15, 1917; Page 4, Column 1. Column titled "Washington Township."

The Vidette-Messenger, Valparaiso, Porter County, Indiana; July 12, 1934; Volume 7, Page 1, Columns 4-5. Column titled "Siftings Gleaned from Hither and Yon -- and Now and Then -- and Way Back When," by A. J. Bowser.

The Vidette-Messenger, Valparaiso, Porter County, Indiana; November 14, 1934; Volume 8, Page 1, Columns 4-5. Column titled "Siftings Gleaned from Hither and Yon -- and Now and Then -- and Way Back When. Early History of Jackson Township," by A. J. Bowser.

The Vidette-Messenger, Valparaiso, Porter County, Indiana; May 13, 1935; Volume 8, Page 1, Columns 4-5 and Page 8, Columns 1-3. Column titled "Siftings Gleaned from Hither and Yon -- and Now and Then -- and Way Back When. History of Jackson Township," by A. J. Bowser..

© 2018 Steven R. Shook. All Rights Reserved.

Wednesday, February 28, 2018

Porter County's "Lost" Historian

Readers of this blog may have noticed that many of the stories posted here include the following citation:
Hardesty, A. G. 1876. Illustrated Historical Atlas of Porter County, Indiana. Valparaiso, Indiana: A. G. Hardesty. 90 p.
The Illustrated Historical Atlas of Porter County, Indiana was written just prior to explosion of county histories that began to appear across the United States from 1880 to approximately 1915. With respect to Porter County, comprehensive histories were published by Weston Arthur Goodspeed and Charles Blanchard (1882), The Lewis Publishing Company (1912) and Thomas Harvey Cannon, Hannibal H. Loring, and Charles J. Robb (1927).

Cover page from Hardesty's Illustrated
Historical Atlas of Porter County, Indiana

County histories provide a valuable cornerstone of source material for genealogists and researchers examining family, local, and regional history. Commonly found in county histories are details concerning pioneers, geology, transportation, roads and bridges, ministers and churches, enumerations of veterans of wars, geography, business and industry, manufacturing, mills, cemeteries, legislators and other public officials, weather, lists of firsts, among others.

A majority of county histories were funded through a subscription of county residents. These patrons of the published history would then prepare a family biography to be included in the final work; oftentimes, these biographies were compiled together into a second or third volume of the county history. Consequently, county histories are occasionally referred to as mug books.

Hardesty's history of Porter County, Indiana, is unique in that it was published very early, prior to the county history publication craze. While it also does not contain biographies, Hardesty's history includes plat maps of each township in the county. These plat maps are the first comprehensive set of plats to be published for Porter County and provide a framework to understand how various communities developed over time. It is likely the history of the county was prepared in celebration and commemoration of the nation's centennial. Hardesty also published a list of men from Porter County that served in the Civil War.

Interestingly, the name of A. G. Hardesty appears only once in other published Porter County histories, and as a passing reference to a historical event that took place in 1872. There was also no notice in the local county newspapers when A. G. Hardesty passed away in 1892. The historical event was an accidental shooting that took place in Union Township and was published in Goodspeed and Blanchard's 1882 county history:
Accidental, Criminal, Incidental, etc. -- In November, 1872, while Royal White, of Lake County, and his brother-in-law, McColby, were at the Cascade Mills, Mr. White was accidentally killed. While waiting for their grist to be ground, they passed away the time in hunting ducks on the mill-pond. After an absence of an hour or two, they returned and deposited their guns in the wagon, after which they hitched the team, and, as McColby was preparing to drive, Mr. White reached into the wagon box and took the gun by the muzzle, and, in pulling it toward him, one of the hammers caught on a sack, and the barrel, heavily loaded with buckshot, was discharged, the load passing through the wagon box and entering his right breast. McColby ran into the mill and notified A. G. Hardesty, who closed the mill and went to the scene of the accident. The wounded man was on his knees, drenched in his own blood, with both hands pressed to the wound, but he arose and walked to the house of David Hardesty. Dr. [Alonzo W.] Vincent, of Deep River, was called, then Dr. [Alonzo J.] Pratt, of Crown Point, but he was beyond the reach of surgical skill. Splinters of the wagon box, two inches long, and portions of gun-wadding, were taken from his lungs, a few hours before death. He died in about three weeks. His remains were placed in the Crown Point Cemetery.
The Cascade Mills was a flouring mill located along the north bank of Taylor Creek, on the east side of County Road 750 West and approximately one-half mile south of U.S. Route 30. This 18-foot by 40-foot, three story brick structure was erected by David Hardesty in 1861. In 1882, the mill was sold to Levi Huffman and was producing flour as late as 1936 when it was referred to as the Huffman Mill. The structure has since been razed.

Engraving of Cascade Mills in Union Township, Porter County, Indiana
Source: Hardesty's Illustrated Historical Atlas of Porter County, Indiana. 1876 [see p. 62]

Photograph of Cascade Mills in Union Township, Porter County, Indiana, circa 1980s
Source: Collection of Daniel Kleine.

David Hardesty was born in Columbiana, Columbiana County, Ohio, around 1821. David married Sophia Bard in May 1854 in Carroll County, Ohio. William and Sophia were the parents of at least eight children: Adolphus Gustin (1846), Albert Lee (1848), Millard Fillmore (1849), William (1851), Rachel (1853), David Reed (1858), Mary L. (1860), and Ulysses G. (1863).

The 1850 Federal Census indicates that David and Sophia were residing in Carroll County, Ohio, with their children Adolphus, Albert, and Millard on October 18. Adolphus, the eldest child, was born September 17, 1846, at Malvern in Carroll County. Ten years later, the family was enumerated during the federal census on September 20, 1860, and were living in Union Township, Porter County, Indiana. David is listed as a "farm laborer." Two additional children, Rachel (age 7) and Reed (age 3), were residing in the Hardesty household in 1860. The 1860 Federal Census shows that Reed was born in Ohio, and it is known that Reed was born on April 20, 1858. Thus, at some point between April 20, 1858, and September 20, 1860, David and Sophia Hardesty moved their family to Porter County's Union Township.

During the Civil War, Adolphus G. Hardesty enlisted on July 12, 1863, in Company A of the Seventh Indiana Cavalry Volunteers, mustering into service on October 1, 1863, at Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana. At the time of his enlistment, Adolphus was 16 years old, which would have made him ineligible to legally serve. To serve, an enlistee had to be a minimum of 18 years of age, and 18 to 20 year old males required the consent of their parents in order to enlist. Hence, Adolphus must have lied about his age in order to enlist for service.

Company A was commanded by Valparaiso resident Captain John Charles Febles, who was later commissioned to major on October 27, 1863. Hardesty would transfer to Company C of the Seventh Indiana Cavalry Volunteers during the war and muster out of service at Austin, Travis County, Texas, on March 26, 1866.

Major John Charles Febles, resident of Valparaiso, Porter
County, Indiana, at time of enlistment in the Civil War.
Source: Collection of Chad Coe.

Adolphus would marry Mary J. Small in Porter County on November 14, 1867, and on April 6, 1869, their first and only child, Millard F. Hardesty, was born.

As mentioned previously, David Hardesty constructed a flouring mill along Union Township's Taylor Creek in 1861. Appropriately, the 1870 Federal Census of Union Township reveals David's occupation as "Prop. Grist Mill," the mill property being valued at $12,000. Adolphus, though 24 years old and married, was living within his father's household in 1870 and is listed as "working on farm." Mary, Adolphus' wife, was living with her parents John E. Small and Mary Jane (Riley) Small in Union Township. Millard F. Hardesty, the one-year-old son of Adolphus and Mary, was residing with Mary.

Why were Adolphus and Mary living separately in Union Township in 1870? It is likely there were marital issues and Adolphus and Mary divorced since Porter County marriage records show that Adolphus Hardesty and Mary Hardesty married again on February 12, 1874.

Census enumeration of Adolphus Hardesty.
Source: 1870 Federal Census of Union Township, Porter County, Indiana.

Census enumeration of Mary J. (Small) Hardesty and Millard F. Hardesty.
Source: 1870 Federal Census of Union Township, Porter County, Indiana.

Between 1870 and 1880, Adolphus G. Hardesty apparently studied law, as he appears with the occupation of "Attorney" in the federal census of Elkhorn, Lincoln County, Kansas, enumerated on June 21, 1880. At Elkhorn, Adolphus is found living with his wife Mary and their son Millard F., age 11. Whether he attended law school or was trained by reading law under a Porter County attorney is unknown. Valparaiso's Northern Indiana Law School (later renamed Valparaiso University School of Law) was founded by Colonel Mark L. DeMotte on November 11, 1879, thus it is very unlikely Hardesty was trained at that institution. Evidence suggests that Adolphus moved with his family to Kansas at some point between 1876 and 1880.

Census enumeration of Adolphus G., Mary J., and Millard F. Hardesty.
Source: 1880 Federal Census of Elkhorn Township, Lincoln County, Kansas.

In his Illustrated Historical Atlas of Porter County, Indiana, Hardesty tenders thanks to Henry S. Adams, Dr. Cornelius Blachly, Perry Blake, William Emery Brown, Jacob Hurlburt, Albert E. Letts, James C. Morgan, "and many others ... for the facts embodied in this work." Each of these individuals was an early settler of Porter County, or the son of an early settler. Therefore, Hardesty likely leaned upon these men to provide a sizeable portion of the county history contained in his book. Unfortunately, the factors that motivated Hardesty to compile the county's first history remain unknown.

Preface from Hardesty's Illustrated
Historical Atlas of Porter County, Indiana

Census enumeration Adolphus Hardesty.
Source: 1890 Federal Census of Surviving Soldiers, Sailors,
and Marines, and Widows, Etc., Astoria, Clatsop County, Oregon.

In October 1889, Adolphus G. Hardesty had traveled to Oregon. The October 13, 1889, issue of The Daily Morning Astorian makes a brief mention of Hardesty's travel:
Judge A. G. Hardesty of Lincoln county, Kansas, arrived in the city a day or two ago and is so favorably impressed with Astoria and its surroundings that he intends to remain and practice law.
Indeed, Hardesty moved his family to Astoria where he would continue his law practice and serve as a pro-tem prosecutor.  By December of 1889, Hardesty was a very active participant in the community and served as "Officer of the Day" for the Cushing Post No. 14 of the Grand Army of the Republic (G.A.R.).

Hardesty's life as an Oregonian, however, was relatively brief. He suffered a stroke in Portland, Multnomah County, Oregon, at 1:00 am on Sunday, August 28, 1892, and died at 12:15 pm that day. The body was transported to Lincoln Cemetery in Lincoln, Lincoln County, Kansas for burial.

Death notice for Adolphus G. Hardesty.
Source: Daily Eugene Guard, August 31, 1892

On November 30, 1894, about two years following his death, a standard Civil War veteran headstone was ordered and delivered from the Vermont Marble Company located in Proctor, Rutland County, Vermont, and placed upon Adolphus G. Hardesty's burial site in Kansas.

Headstone record for Adolphus Hardesty.
Source: National Archives and Records Administration, Card
Records of Headstones Provided for Deceased Union Civil War Veterans.

Photograph of Adolphus G. Hardesty's headstone in Lincoln
Cemetery located at Lincoln, Lincoln County, Kansas.
Source: Find A Grave, Memorial No. 51433645.

Adolphus' widow, Mary J. (Small) Hardesty, never remarried following his death. By November 1904, it is known that Mary was residing in Chicago. Mary then moved to Hobart, Lake County, Indiana, around 1905, along with her son Millard. She would live in Hobart for the remainder of her life, her final residence being located at 804 East 3rd Street in Hobart.

Last residence of Mary J. (Small) Hardesty located at
804 East 3rd Street in Hobart, Lake County, Indiana.
Source: Google Maps.

On August 19, 1942, Mary died at Methodist Hospital located in Gary, Lake County, Indiana; her death being attributed to bronchial pneumonia. Rather than being buried in Kansas next to her husband, Mary's remains were interred in Mosier Cemetery in Porter County's Union Township on August 21, 1942.

 Death notice for Mary J. (Small) Hardesty.
Source: The Vidette-Messenger, August 20, 1942.

Millard would move back to the Astoria, Oregon, by 1910, as he appears with a wife, Nettie, and son, Fred, in the Federal Census of that city. The 1920 Federal Census indicates that Millard's family was living at Seaside, Clatsop County, Oregon. The 1930 Federal Census shows the family had again moved, and were residing in Portland, Oregon. Millard died at his home on October 29, 1933, at Portland and was buried at Greenwood Cemetery in Astoria. His death notice was published in both Indiana and Oregon newspapers.

Death notice for Millard F. Hardesty.
Source: The Hammond Times, November 7, 1933.

Death notice for Millard F. Hardesty.
Source: Morning Oregonian, October 31, 1933.

Source Material

Cannon, Thomas H., H. H. Loring, and Charles J. Robb. 1927. History of the Lake and Calumet Region of Indiana, Embracing the Counties of Lake, Porter and LaPorte: An Historical Account of Its People and Its Progress from the Earliest Times to the Present. Volume I. Indianapolis, Indiana: Historians' Association. 840 p.

Cogley, Thomas S. 1876. History of the Seventh Indiana Cavalry Volunteers. LaPorte, Indiana: Herald Company, Steam Printers. 267 p. [see p. 49]

Goodspeed, Weston A., and Charles Blanchard. 1882. Counties of Lake and Porter, Indiana: Historical and Biographical. Chicago, Illinois: F. A. Battey & Company. 771 p.[see pp. 195-196]

Hardesty, A. G. 1876. Illustrated Historical Atlas of Porter County, Indiana. Valparaiso, Indiana: A. G. Hardesty. 90 p.

The Lewis Publishing Company. 1912. History of Porter County, Indiana: A Narrative Account of Its Historical Progress, Its People and Its Principle Interests. Volume I. Chicago, Illinois: The Lewis Publishing Company. 357 p.

William Henry Harrison Chapter, Daughter of the American Revolution. Undated. Marriage Record, Volume 3, Porter County, Indiana. Valparaiso, Indiana: William Henry Harrison Chapter, Daughter of the American Revolution. 63 p. [see p. 21]

William Henry Harrison Chapter, Daughter of the American Revolution. Undated. Marriage Record, Volume 4, Porter County, Indiana. Valparaiso, Indiana: William Henry Harrison Chapter, Daughter of the American Revolution. 39 p. [see p. 14]

Newspapers (listed by date of publication)
The Daily Morning Astorian, Astoria, Clatsop County, Oregon; October 13, 1889; Volume 33, Number 86, Page 3, Column 3. Column titled "Clipped and Condensed."

The Daily Morning Astorian, Astoria, Clatsop County, Oregon; December 13, 1889; Volume 33, Number 137, Page 3, Column 3. Column titled "G. A. R. Election of Officers." 

Daily Eugene Guard, Eugene, Lane County, Oregon; August 31, 1892; Volume 3, Number 72, Page 1, Column 3. Column titled "Death of A. G. Hardesty."

The Morning Astorian, Astoria, Clatsop County, Oregon; October 26, 1904; Volume 54, Number 18, Page 8, Column 2. Column titled "Personal Mention."

Capital Journal, Salem, Marion County, Oregon; October 30, 1933; Volume 45, Number 258, Page 7, Column 5. Column titled "Colonel Hardesty Dies in Portland."

The Evening Herald, Klamath Falls , Klamath County, Oregon; October 31, 1933; Number 5054, Page 1, Column 5. Column titled "Hardesty Funeral Held."

Morning Oregonian, Portland, Multnomah County, Oregon; October 31, 1933; Volume 72, Number 22772, Page 12, Columns 1-2. Column titled "Millard F. Hardesty."

The Hammond Times, Hammond, Lake County, Indiana; November 7, 1933; Volume 28, Number 120, Page 10, Column 3. Column titled "Former Hobart Boy Is Dead."

The Vidette-Messenger, Valparaiso, Porter County, Indiana; August 20, 1942; Volume 16, Page 6, Column 2. Column titled "Mary Hardesty, 90, of Hobart, Taken by Death."

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